The European Union pre-accession instruments were designated for candidate countries to help them solve specific tasks in implementing EU legislation. The activities of the pre-accession instruments were limited by the accession of the Czech Republic to the EU and after 1 May 2004, these instruments were only being completed. In the period before the accession to EU, the Czech Republic was receiving expert advice and consultation from Italy as an experienced member of the EU, and it was the so-called twinning partner of the Czech Republic.
In the Czech Republic three pre-accession instruments were used:
PHARE (Poland and Hungary Aid for Restructuring of the Economy)
The PHARE funds co-financed projects adjusting differences in the technical equipment of border municipalities, promotion of Czech exporters abroad or study abroad for teachers. The PHARE programme also included projects aimed at improving the situation of small and medium-sized enterprises, improving infrastructure, human resources development and support for flood damage. Its aim was also to create a structure for the future participation of the Czech Republic in the Structural Funds and to support projects that help the transposition and implementation of EU legislation.
SAPARD (Special Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development)
SAPARD programme assisted the candidate countries in dealing with specific tasks relating to the common agricultural policy, structural changes in the different agricultural sectors and rural areas. After the Czech Republic joined the European Union, it was replaced by OP Rural Development and Multifunctional Agriculture.
ISPA (Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession)
The ISPA financial instrument focused on financing infrastructure projects in the area of environment and transport. Its mission was to contribute to the sustainable development of the acceding countries. Projects in the area of the environment encouraged the implementation of EU environmental legislation. For transport projects, attention was focused on the relationship between measures with trans-European transport networks. After joining the EU it was replaced by the Cohesion Fund.
Since 2007, the newly acceding countries only have IPA (Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance) as an available instrument, which encompasses all herein mentioned pre-accession instruments.
COHESION POLICY FUNDS 2004-2006
The Czech Republic was able to draw in the programming period 2004-2006 from four Structural Funds Cohesion Fund and Solidarity Fund.
Structural Funds formed the basic instrument of cohesion policy, which should meet the set objectives through the operational programmes (operational programmes and objectives of the programming period 2000-2006 see at here). In the programming period 2004-2006 the Czech Republic drew in four then existing Structural Funds:
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Founded in 1975, it has remained the largest fund in terms of the volume of financing. From ERDF resources were funded projects in the regions falling under objectives 1 and 2.
European Social Fund (ESF)
It was founded in 1957 and it is the main instrument of the EU social policy and employment policy. ESF assistance was aimed at young people, the long-term unemployed and socially disadvantaged groups and women in all three objectives of the EU regional policy in the period 2004-2006.
The European Guidance and Guarantee Fund for Agriculture (EAGGF)
It functioned since 1962 and from its resources the development of rural areas was funded. EAGGF was divided into two sections. The Guidance Section supported rural development in line with the Objective 1 in the period 2004-2006, which led to the modernization and rationalization of agricultural production. The Guarantee Section worked in the areas of export compensations or stabilization of prices. This fund was replaced in 2007 by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD).
Financial Instrument for Fisheries Development (FIFG)
It was founded in 1994 in order to provide funding for the development of coastal regions and fishing sector. For the programming period 2007-2013 it was replaced by the European Fisheries Fund (EFF).
The European Union funds see here.